- International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Probably the biggest standards organization in the world, the ISO is really a federation of standards organizations from dozens of nations. In the networking world, the ISO is best known for its OSI Reference Model.
- American National Standards Institute (ANSI): ANSI is the main organization responsible for coordinating and publishing computer and information technology standards in the United States. While they are commonly thought of as developing and maintaining standards, they do neither. Instead, they oversee and accredit the organizations that actually create the standards, qualifying them as Standards Developing Organizations or SDOs. ANSI also publishes the standards documents created by the SDOs, and serves as the United States' representative to the ISO.
- Information Technology Industry Council (ITIC): ITIC is a group of several dozen companies in the information technology (computer) industry. ITIC is the SDO approved by ANSI to develop and process standards related to many computer-related topics. It was formerly known as the Computer and Business Equipment Manufacturers Association (CBEMA).
- Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE): The IEEE (pronounced “eye-triple-ee”) is a well-known professional organization for those in the electrical or electronics fields, including computers and networking. IEEE's main claim to fame in the networking industry is the IEEE 802 Project, which encompasses many popular networking technologies including Ethernet.
- Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA): The EIA is an international industry association that is best known for publishing electrical wiring and transmission standards.
5-layer Internet model - http://www.gslis.utexas.edu/~l38613dw/readings/NotesOnInterconnection.html
RWE: using NET STAT and other tools to track down spammers through the layers